Full text of President Xi's message for China Pavilion of Expo 2020 Dubai

Message by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

For the China Pavilion of Expo 2020 Dubai

1 October 2021

Ladies and gentlemen, friends,

Welcome to the China Pavilion!

Expo 2020 Dubai is the first World Expo held in the Middle East. Under the theme of "Connecting Minds, Creating the Future", countries have an opportunity to share their philosophies and success of economic and social development and enhance dialogue and cooperation. This shows the significant importance of the Expo.

The time we live in is full of challenges and full of hope. Where should the future of humanity be headed? China's answer is to call on the people of all countries to work together, respond to the call of the times, strengthen global governance, pursue innovation-driven development, and advance the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

The theme of the China Pavilion is "Build a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind — Innovation & Opportunity". The pavilion showcases China's achievements in areas such as space exploration, information technology, modern transportation, artificial intelligence and smart living. China is ready to enhance exchange and cooperation with other countries to seize the opportunities for innovation-driven development and actively promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

I wish Expo 2020 Dubai a full success!

Full text of Xi's statement at the General Debate of the 76th Session of the United Nations General Assembly

Bolstering Confidence and Jointly Overcoming Difficulties To Build a Better World

Statement by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People’s Republic of China
At the General Debate of the 76th Session of
The United Nations General Assembly

21 September 2021


Mr. President,

The year 2021 is a truly remarkable one for the Chinese people. This year marks the centenary of the Communist Party of China. It is also the 50th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People’s Republic of China in the United Nations, a historic event which will be solemnly commemorated by China. We will continue our active efforts to take China’s cooperation with the United Nations to a new level and make new and greater contributions to advancing the noble cause of the UN.

Mr. President,

A year ago, global leaders attended the high-level meetings marking the 75th anniversary of the UN and issued a declaration pledging to fight COVID-19 in solidarity, tackle challenges together, uphold multilateralism, strengthen the role of the UN, and work for the common future of present and coming generations.

One year on, our world is facing the combined impacts of changes unseen in a century and the COVID-19 pandemic. In all countries, people long for peace and development more than ever before, their call for equity and justice is growing stronger, and they are more determined in pursuing win-win cooperation.

Right now, COVID-19 is still raging in the world, and profound changes are taking place in human society. The world has entered a period of new turbulence and transformation. It falls on each and every responsible statesman to answer the questions of our times and make a historical choice with confidence, courage and a sense of mission.

First, we must beat COVID-19 and win this decisive fight crucial to the future of humanity. The history of world civilization is also one of fighting pandemics. Rising to challenges, humanity has always emerged in triumph and achieved greater development and advancement. The current pandemic may appear overwhelming, but we humanity will surely overcome it and prevail.

We should always put people and their lives first, and care about the life, value and dignity of every individual. We need to respect science, take a science-based approach, and follow the laws of science. We need to both follow routine, targeted COVID-19 protocols and take emergency response measures, and both carry out epidemic control and promote economic and social development. We need to enhance coordinated global COVID-19 response and minimize the risk of cross-border virus transmission.

Vaccination is our powerful weapon against COVID-19. I have stressed on many occasions the need to make vaccines a global public good and ensure vaccine accessibility and affordability in developing countries. Of pressing priority is to ensure the fair and equitable distribution of vaccines globally. China will strive to provide a total of two billion doses of vaccines to the world by the end of this year. In addition to donating 100 million US dollars to COVAX, China will donate 100 million doses of vaccines to other developing countries in the course of this year. China will continue to support and engage in global science-based origins tracing, and stands firmly opposed to political maneuvering in whatever form.

Second, we must revitalize the economy and pursue more robust, greener and more balanced global development. Development holds the key to people’s well-being. Facing the severe shocks of COVID-19, we need to work together to steer global development toward a new stage of balanced, coordinated and inclusive growth. To this end, I would like to propose a Global Development Initiative:

— Staying committed to development as a priority. We need to put development high on the global macro policy agenda, strengthen policy coordination among major economies, and ensure policy continuity, consistency and sustainability. We need to foster global development partnerships that are more equal and balanced, forge greater synergy among multilateral development cooperation processes, and speed up the implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

— Staying committed to a people-centered approach. We should safeguard and improve people’s livelihoods and protect and promote human rights through development, and make sure that development is for the people and by the people, and that its fruits are shared among the people. We should continue our work so that the people will have a greater sense of happiness, benefit and security, and achieve well-rounded development.

— Staying committed to benefits for all. We should care about the special needs of developing countries. We may employ such means as debt suspension and development aid to help developing countries, particularly vulnerable ones facing exceptional difficulties, with emphasis on addressing unbalanced and inadequate development among and within countries.

— Staying committed to innovation-driven development. We need to seize the historic opportunities created by the latest round of technological revolution and industrial transformation, redouble efforts to harness technological achievements to boost productivity, and foster an open, fair, equitable and non-discriminatory environment for the development of science and technology. We should foster new growth drivers in the post-COVID era and jointly achieve leapfrog development.

— Staying committed to harmony between man and nature. We need to improve global environmental governance, actively respond to climate change and create a community of life for man and nature. We need to accelerate transition to a green and low-carbon economy and achieve green recovery and development. China will strive to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. This requires tremendous hard work, and we will make every effort to meet these goals. China will step up support for other developing countries in developing green and low-carbon energy, and will not build new coal-fired power projects abroad.

—Staying committed to results-oriented actions. We need to increase input in development, advance on a priority basis cooperation on poverty alleviation, food security, COVID-19 response and vaccines, development financing, climate change and green development, industrialization, digital economy and connectivity, among other areas, and accelerate implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, so as to build a global community of development with a shared future. China has pledged an additional three billion US dollars of international assistance in the next three years to support developing countries in responding to COVID-19 and promoting economic and social recovery.

Third, we must strengthen solidarity and promote mutual respect and win-win cooperation in conducting international relations. A world of peace and development should embrace civilizations of various forms, and must accommodate diverse paths to modernization. Democracy is not a special right reserved to an individual country, but a right for the people of all countries to enjoy. Recent developments in the global situation show once again that military intervention from the outside and so-called democratic transformation entail nothing but harm. We need to advocate peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, which are the common values of humanity, and reject the practice of forming small circles or zero-sum games.

Differences and problems among countries, hardly avoidable, need to be handled through dialogue and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect. One country’s success does not have to mean another country’s failure, and the world is big enough to accommodate common development and progress of all countries. We need to pursue dialogue and inclusiveness over confrontation and exclusion. We need to build a new type of international relations based on mutual respect, equity, justice and win-win cooperation, and do the best we can to expand the convergence of our interests and achieve the biggest synergy possible.

The Chinese people have always celebrated and striven to pursue the vision of peace, amity and harmony. China has never and will never invade or bully others, or seek hegemony. China is always a builder of world peace, contributor to global development, defender of the international order and provider of public goods. China will continue to bring the world new opportunities through its new development.

Fourth, we must improve global governance and practice true multilateralism. In the world, there is only one international system, i.e. the international system with the United Nations at its core. There is only one international order, i.e. the international order underpinned by international law. And there is only one set of rules, i.e. the basic norms governing international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.

The UN should hold high the banner of true multilateralism and serve as the central platform for countries to jointly safeguard universal security, share development achievements and chart the course for the future of the world. The UN should stay committed to ensuring a stable international order, increasing the representation and say of developing countries in international affairs, and taking the lead in advancing democracy and rule of law in international relations. The UN should advance, in a balanced manner, work in all the three areas of security, development and human rights. It should set common agenda, highlight pressing issues and focus on real actions, and see to it that commitments made by all parties to multilateralism are truly delivered.

Mr. President,

The world is once again at a historical crossroads. I am convinced that the trend of peace, development and advancement for humanity is irresistible. Let us bolster confidence and jointly address global threats and challenges, and work together to build a community with a shared future for mankind and a better world for all.

Staying True to Our Founding Mission and Forging Ahead on a New Journey of SCO Cooperation

Editor's Note: Chinese President Xi Jinping on Friday addresses the 21st meeting of the Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization via video link. Following is the full text of his speech:

Your Excellency President Emomali Rahmon,

Dear Colleagues,

I wish to thank you, President Rahmon, and Tajikistan for hosting this meeting under Tajikistan's Presidency of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). As the SCO marks its 20th anniversary, together with all of you, I look forward to reviewing the proud history of the SCO and charting the course for even broader prospects of its future development.

The past 20 years have seen evolving international developments and profound reshaping of the global governance system. These years have also seen the vigorous growth of the SCO and the fruitful, mutually beneficial cooperation among its member states. Over the past two decades, guided by the Shanghai Spirit of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for diversity of civilizations and pursuit of common development, the SCO has endeavored to promote world peace, development and human progress, and to explore new ground, both theoretically and with actual steps, with a view to building a new type of international relations and a community with a shared future for mankind.

― We have jointly promoted political mutual trust. We have signed the Treaty on Long-Term Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation and created a new model based on partnership and dialogue, rather than alliance or confrontation. We have supported each other on issues which involve our respective core interests and are of major concern to us. And we have provided reliable and strong backing to each other in our pursuit of development.

― We have jointly ensured security and stability. We were the first to call for fighting terrorism, separatism and extremism. We have taken tough actions to curb the spread of drug trafficking, cybercrime and transnational organized crime, and jointly held counter-terrorism exercises and border control operations. We call for seeking political settlement of international and regional hotspot issues, and we have erected a strong defense to uphold peace and tranquility in our region.

― We have jointly pursued prosperity and development. We have intensified practical cooperation in our region. People-to-people programs such as art festivals, the SCO University and the SCO Forum on Traditional Medicine have been launched. With the "SCO speed" and "SCO efficiency", as evidenced by the 12 percent annual growth of the total GDP of SCO member states and their trade as well as manifold increase in the number of mutual visits, we have moved faster in delivering decent lives for people in SCO countries.

― We have jointly upheld international justice. We advocate multilateralism and the common values of humanity and have spoken out against hegemony and power politics. We have maintained close coordination with SCO observer states and dialogue partners as well as international and regional organizations which share the SCO's purposes and principles, and we have rallied other members of the international community to work for a shared future.

Colleagues,

The SCO has reached a new historical starting point. We should stay true to the Shanghai Spirit, keep to the right direction, follow the historical trends of promoting democracy in international relations, and pursue our own development as we pursue common development for humanity. Together, we can build a closer SCO community with a shared future and contribute even more to lasting global peace and common prosperity. To this end, I call for taking the following steps:

First, we need to follow the journey of enhancing solidarity and cooperation. We should make the most of the meeting mechanisms and platforms at all levels, step up policy dialogue, communication and coordination, respect each other's legitimate concerns and promptly resolve problems that may arise and affect our cooperation, thus keeping the SCO on a steady course of development. We should maintain firm confidence in our systems, reject condescending lecturing, and firmly support countries in exploring development paths and governance models that are compatible with their national conditions. We should support each other in steadily advancing important political agenda including domestic elections. We must never allow any external interference in the domestic affairs of countries in our region under whatever pretext. In short, we should keep the future of our countries' development and progress firmly in our own hands.

Fighting COVID-19 remains the most pressing task facing us all. We should follow the principle of putting people and their lives first and promote the spirit of science. We need to deepen international cooperation against the virus, promote fair and equitable distribution of vaccines and firmly oppose any act of politicizing COVID-19 origins tracing. To protect the lives and health of people from around the world, China has provided close to 1.2 billion doses of finished and bulk vaccines to over 100 countries and international organizations, thus becoming the biggest vaccine provider in the world. China will step up efforts to provide a total of two billion doses to other countries in the course of this year. We will deepen anti-COVID cooperation with other developing countries, make good use of China's US$100 million donation to COVAX, and make our due contribution to humanity's ultimate victory over the virus.

Second, we need to follow the journey of upholding our common security. Faced with complex and fluid security dynamics in the region, we need to pursue common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and take tough actions against terrorism, separatism and extremism, including the East Turkestan Islamic Movement. We need to strengthen cooperation on counter-narcotics, border control and security for major events, and speedily improve the SCO's security cooperation mechanism. We need to further implement the Convention on Countering Extremism and other legal instruments, and enhance the capacity of competent authorities of SCO countries to maintain stability and respond to emergencies.

Afghanistan has undergone drastic changes. The withdrawal of foreign troops has opened a new page in its history. But Afghanistan still faces many daunting challenges, and it needs the support and assistance of the international community, particularly countries in our region. We SCO member states need to step up coordination, make full use of platforms such as the SCO-Afghanistan Contact Group and facilitate a smooth transition in Afghanistan. We need to encourage Afghanistan to put in place a broad-based and inclusive political framework, adopt prudent and moderate domestic and foreign policies, resolutely fight all forms of terrorism, live in amity with its neighbors and truly embark on a path of peace, stability and development.

Third, we need to follow the journey of promoting openness and integration. We SCO countries are all at a critical stage of development. Being close to each other and sharing common interests are our unique strengths. We need to give full play to such strengths, stay committed to openness and cooperation, and jointly pursue our shared goal of development and rejuvenation. We need to continue to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation as well as the secure and orderly flow of people, goods, capital and data. We should create growth drivers of cooperation such as digital economy, green energy and modern agriculture. Belt and Road cooperation offers a major platform of promoting common development for us all. We need to strengthen complementarity between the Belt and Road Initiative and the development strategies of SCO countries and regional cooperation initiatives such as the Eurasian Economic Union. We should keep industrial and supply chains functioning smoothly, promote economic integration and interconnected development of all countries and deliver shared benefits to all.

To facilitate post-COVID economic recovery in SCO countries, China will continue to share its market opportunities, strive to reach US$2.3 trillion in its cumulative trade with other SCO countries in the next five years, and improve its trade structure and balance. China will open a China-SCO Business and Trade Institute to promote business and trade cooperation among SCO countries. As phase one of the RMB30 billion yuan equivalent special lending facility set up by China in 2018 within the SCO framework will soon be completed, China will launch the second phase of this special lending facility to promote Belt and Road cooperation. Such lending will mainly cover projects related to modernization, connectivity, infrastructure, and green, low-carbon and sustainable development.

Fourth, we need to follow the journey of boosting interactions and mutual learning. Interactions between civilizations provide the most solid foundation for the SCO's development, and people-to-people exchanges provide the strongest driving force for our Organization. We need to encourage exchanges, dialogue, harmony and co-existence between civilizations. We should launch more projects that will appeal to our people and benefit them directly in areas including science and technology, education, culture, health and poverty alleviation, fully tap into platforms including the youth exchange camp, the women's forum, the media forum and the forum on people-to-people friendship, and social organizations such as the Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation Commission. With these efforts, we can build a bridge of mutual understanding and friendship between the people of SCO countries.

In the next three years, China will provide 1,000 training opportunities in poverty alleviation for other SCO countries, open 10 Luban Workshops, and launch 30 cooperation projects in such areas as health, poverty relief, culture and education under the framework of the Silk Road Community Building Initiative. This will help countries in need build capacity and improve the lives of their people. China will host an SCO youth technology and innovation forum next year to unleash the creativity of young people in SCO countries. China proposes to establish an SCO alliance of traditional medicine industries to explore new ways of boosting cooperation on traditional medicine. China welcomes your countries' participation in the 2022 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games, so that together we can deliver a streamlined, safe and splendid Olympic Games.

Fifth, we need to follow the journey of upholding equity and justice. As a Chinese saying goes, "Power may win for the time being, but justice will prevail for the long run." Acting from a so-called "position of strength" is not the way to handle international affairs, and hegemonic, domineering and bullying acts should be firmly rejected. In addressing international relations, we should observe the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. We need to practice true multilateralism and oppose actions that use the name of so-called rules to undermine the international order and cause confrontation and division. We need to boost mutually beneficial cooperation, remove trade, investment and technology barriers, and promote inclusive development that delivers benefits to all.

Colleagues,

Today, we will launch procedures to admit Iran as a member state of the SCO and Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Qatar as new dialogue partners. I am confident that the growing SCO family will stride ahead together with all the progressive forces of the world, and be the builders of world peace, contributors to global development and defenders of the international order.

China will support Uzbekistan in its upcoming SCO presidency. I am sure that with the joint efforts of all our member states, the SCO will continue to scale new heights in all areas of cooperation.

Colleagues,

Let us hold high the banner of the Shanghai Spirit, stay true to the SCO's founding mission, advance in the right direction of building a community with a shared future for mankind, and embark on a new journey for the development of the SCO.

Thank you.

Full text: President Xi Jinping's remarks at 13th BRICS Summit

President Xi Jinping addresses the 13th BRICS Summit via video link in Beijing on Thursday. HUANG JINGWEN/YUE YUEWEI/XINHUA

Advance BRICS Cooperation to Meet Common Challenges Together

Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People's Republic of China
At the 13th BRICS Summit

9 September 2021

Dear Colleagues,

At present, the COVID-19 pandemic is still wreaking havoc around the world. The road to global recovery remains bumpy and tortuous. And the international order is going through profound and complex changes. Facing these challenges, we the BRICS countries must step forward to make an active contribution to world peace and development and advance the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

—We need to promote the practice of true multilateralism, adhere to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and safeguard the UN-centered international system and the international order underpinned by international law.

—We need to promote global solidarity against COVID-19, join forces to tackle the pandemic, uphold a science-based approach to tracing its origins, and oppose politicization and stigmatization. We need to enhance coordination in COVID prevention and control, and boost the research, production and equitable distribution of vaccines as a global public good.

—We need to promote openness and innovation-driven growth to facilitate a steady global recovery. We need to uphold the WTO-centered multilateral trading regime, make sure that the latest outcomes of scientific and technological progress bring benefit to all countries, and push for an economic globalization that is more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial for all.

—We need to promote common development, follow a people-centered philosophy of development and fully implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We need to actively respond to climate change based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, promote the transition to green and low-carbon development, and jointly build a clean and beautiful world.

Colleagues,

Under the current circumstances, it is important for BRICS countries to stay resolved, strengthen unity and further enhance the quality of practical cooperation. To this end, I wish to make five proposals.

First, strengthen public health cooperation in the spirit of solidarity. We need to step up to our political responsibility, support each other's COVID response, and share relevant information and COVID control experience. We need to pursue practical cooperation on vaccines, including joint research and production and mutual recognition of standards, and facilitate an early launch of the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center in virtual format. It is also important to strengthen cooperation on traditional medicine to develop more tools against the virus.

Second, strengthen international cooperation on vaccines in the spirit of equitable access for all. China has provided vaccines and necessary technical support for countries in need, and has made active contribution to promoting the equitable distribution of vaccines and global cooperation against COVID-19. To date, China has provided more than one billion doses of finished and bulk vaccines to over 100 countries and international organizations, and will strive to provide a total of two billion doses by the end of this year. I would like to take this opportunity to announce that on top of the US$100 million donation to COVAX, China will donate an additional 100 million doses of vaccines to fellow developing countries within this year.

Third, strengthen economic cooperation in the spirit of mutual benefit. We need to earnestly implement the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership 2025, and expand cooperation in such areas as trade and investment, technology and innovation, and green and low-carbon development. China proposes to host a BRICS high-level meeting on climate change and a BRICS forum on big data for sustainable development. We welcome the substantive progress made in expanding the membership of the New Development Bank (NDB), and look forward to a bigger role of the NDB in supporting the development of its members and in global economic and financial affairs. The BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution innovation center, already launched in Xiamen, has hosted events such as personnel training, a think tank symposium and an industrial innovation contest. Next year, the center plans to hold a forum on the development of industrial Internet and digital manufacturing, among other activities, and we look forward to active participation of government departments and business communities of BRICS countries. The Agreement on the Cooperation on BRICS Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation, which has already been signed, should be fully implemented by us all to bring benefits to the people of our five countries.

Fourth, strengthen political and security cooperation in the spirit of fairness and justice. We need to consolidate the BRICS strategic partnership, support each other on issues concerning our respective core interests, and jointly safeguard our sovereignty, security and development interests. We need to make good use of BRICS mechanisms such as the meeting of foreign ministers and the meeting of high representatives for security, better coordinate our position on major international and regional issues, and send out an even bigger, collective voice of BRICS countries. The BRICS Counter Terrorism Action Plan, adopted earlier this year, should be implemented in real earnest.

Fifth, strengthen people-to-people exchanges in the spirit of mutual learning. The BRICS Women Innovation Contest hosted by China this year is a refreshing addition to our cooperation despite the pandemic. China suggests setting up a BRICS alliance for vocational education to organize vocational skills competitions and create a platform of exchanges and cooperation for the vocational colleges and businesses of our five countries. Going forward, China will host the BRICS seminar on governance and the BRICS forum on people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and open an online training course for media professionals of our five countries. China will host the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games early next year. We look forward to welcoming athletes from BRICS countries and around the world to demonstrate their sporting skills and achieve excellent performance.

Colleagues,

As a Chinese saying goes, “A man of wisdom adapts to changes; a man of knowledge acts by circumstances.” In advancing BRICS cooperation, we need to embrace changes of our times and keep abreast of the times. We need to set clearer priorities in our wide-ranging cooperation, make our cooperation more results-oriented and ensure that its benefits are fully delivered. We need to adjust and improve the substance and modality of our cooperation on the basis of consensus to meet the evolving circumstances and practical needs. I am confident that with our concerted efforts, the BRICS mechanism will brim with renewed vigor and vitality.

Thank you.

Join Hands to Overcome Current Difficulties, Plan for Future Development and Write a New Chapter for Far East Cooperation

President Xi Jinping addresses the opening ceremony of the Plenary Session of the sixth Eastern Economic Forum via video link on Sept 3, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

Editor's Note: Chinese President Xi Jinping attended and addressed the opening ceremony of the sixth Eastern Economic Forum on Friday via video link in Beijing. Following is the full text of his speech:

Your Excellency President Vladimir Putin,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

I wish to thank President Putin for his gracious invitation. It is a great pleasure to address the Eastern Economic Forum again after three years.

Today marks the 76th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War. On 25 August, I spoke with President Putin on the phone. We both agreed that the international community must defend firmly the victorious outcomes of World War II, safeguard the truth of history, and stay committed to taking history as a mirror to open up a brighter future.

Earlier in June, President Putin and I had a successful video meeting. Together, we announced the extension of the China-Russia Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation, and reached new common understandings on major issues such as strengthening China-Russia strategic coordination and advancing bilateral practical cooperation across the board. The China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era boasts strong momentum and broad prospects.

As we speak, the international landscape is going through profound transformation. The COVID-19 pandemic keeps raging with frequent flare-ups, and the world economy faces a daunting recovery. This presents regional cooperation in Northeast Asia with both stern challenges and important opportunities. It is only right that all parties ground themselves in regional realities while adopting a global perspective, join hands to tide over the difficult time and plan for common development.

-We need to offer each other help to overcome the pandemic challenge. We need to intensify cooperation in vaccine research, development and production, provide more public goods to the international community, firmly reject any politicization of COVID vaccines and origins-tracing, and strive to build a global community of health for all.

-We need to redouble our efforts to advance mutually-beneficial cooperation. We need to deepen the collaboration between the Belt and Road Initiative and the Eurasian Economic Union, support the innovative development of the digital economy, jointly tackle global climate change, and promote social and economic development in the region.

-We need to form synergy to safeguard regional peace and stability. We need to narrow differences and build consensus through dialogue and exchanges, embrace the concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and work for a harmonious and tranquil homeland for us all.

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, and China has started a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country. We are ready to work with all parties to uphold true multilateralism, advocate trust and harmony, promote win-win cooperation, and march with firm steps toward the goal of building a community with a shared future for mankind.

Thank you.

President Xi welcomes delegates to CIFTIS

Photo taken on Sept 2, 2020 shows the outdoor exhibition area of the China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS) in Beijing. [Photo/Xinhua]

Editor's note: President Xi Jinping sent a welcome message on Thursday to the Global Trade in Services Summit of the 2021 China International Fair for Trade in Services. Following is the full text of his message:

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Dear Friends,

Good evening. On behalf of the government and people of China, and also in my own name, I wish to extend a warm welcome and cordial greetings to all the distinguished guests of the 2021 China International Fair for Trade in Services.

This year's CIFTIS is themed "Towards Digital Future and Service Driven Development". I believe that the active participation of you all will make the year's event a special and productive one.

Trade in services is a key component of international trade and an important area of economic and trade cooperation between countries. It has a big role to play in fostering a new development paradigm. We will work with all other parties to uphold openness, cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win, share opportunities in the growth of services trade, and promote world economic recovery and growth.

We will open up at a higher level, by implementing across the country a negative list for cross-border services trade and by exploring the development of national demonstration zones for the innovative development of trade in services. We will create more possibilities for cooperation, by scaling up support for the growth of the services sector in Belt and Road partner countries and by sharing China's technological achievements with the rest of the world. We will further improve rules for the services sector, by supporting Beijing and other localities in piloting the alignment of domestic rules with the ones in high-standard international free trade agreements and in building demonstration zones of digital trade. We will continue to support the innovation-driven development of small and medium-sized enterprises, by deepening the reform of the New Third Board (National Equities Exchange and Quotations) and setting up a Beijing stock exchange as the primary platform serving innovation-oriented SMEs.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Friends,

Let us join hands to defeat the COVID-19 pandemic and get through these tough times. Using peace, development and win-win cooperation as the "golden key", we will be able to address the challenges facing the world economy and international trade and investment, and create a brighter future for all.

Thank you.

Understanding the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new development dynamic

Understanding the New Development Stage, Applying the New Development Philosophy, and Creating a New Development Dynamic

XI JINPING

President Xi Jinping toured Jiangsu province, Nov 12-13, 2020. The photo here shows him inspecting Pumping Station No 4 of the Jiangdu Key Water Conservancy Project in Yangzhou, afternoon of Nov 13. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER XIE HUANCHI

Since the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in October 2020, all regions and departments have yielded positive results from their hard work to study, publicize, and apply the guiding principles from the Session in line with the Central Committee's requirements. During this special seminar, the Central Committee hopes that we will gain an accurate understanding of the new stage of development through extensive discussions and exchanges of experience, with a view to fully implementing the new development philosophy, accelerating our efforts to create a new development dynamic, and promoting high-quality development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025). Doing so will see us setting the stage for building a modern socialist country in all respects.

I have spoken of the importance of studying and applying the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session both at the Session itself and on many other occasions, such as meetings of the Central Committee Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, the Central Economic Work Conference, and the Central Rural Work Conference. Today, I would like to focus on the following four subjects.

First, we need to have an accurate understanding of the new stage of development.

An accurate understanding of the historical stage that the cause of our Party and people has entered is essential for defining the central task of the current period and setting the guidelines, principles, and policies for our work. This is an important practice our Party has used to move from victory to victory in leading China's revolution, development, and reform.

During the new-democratic revolution, our Party came to realize during the course of its arduous explorations that the Chinese revolution would have to pass through the historical stage of New Democracy. Based on this understanding, it set the tasks, strategies, and tactics that enabled it to lead the people to win the Chinese revolution. When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, our Party was keenly aware that a transitional period would be required to move from new democracy to socialism. It accordingly formulated a general guideline for this period, which enabled our country to complete its socialist revolution and move smoothly into the period of socialist development. Following the introduction of the reform and opening up policy in 1978, it reviewed the positive and negative experiences of socialist development around the world, and particularly in China, and reached the major conclusion that China was in the primary stage of socialism and would remain in that stage for a long time to come. Accordingly, it set the basic guideline that ushered in a brand new phase of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Central Committee has built on the sustained efforts of our predecessors by pursuing coordinated implementation of the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. As a result, we have witnessed historic achievements and developments in the cause of our Party and the country, as socialism with Chinese characteristics has crossed the threshold into a new era.

From Jan 18 to 20, 2021, President Xi toured Beijing and Hebei province and presided over a meeting reporting on preparations for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. On the afternoon of Jan 19, he visited Taizicheng Station on the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed rail line. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER JU PENG

The Fifth Plenary Session determined that China, having accomplished the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, would build on this achievement to embark on a new journey toward the Second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country in all respects, thus signifying China's entry into a new stage of development. This strategic judgment was made based on the following considerations.

From a theoretical standpoint, Marxism blends high ideals with practical tasks, and insists on the unity between historical inevitability and the stage-specific nature of development, in the belief that as human society moves inexorably toward communism, it must complete certain historical stages along the way. While applying the basic tenets of Marxism to the practical problems of China, our Party came to realize that the development of socialism did not only constitute one continuous historical process, but was made up of different stages. Between late 1959 and early 1960, Mao Zedong wrote in his reading notes on the Soviet textbook Political Economy that "It is possible to divide the period of socialism into two stages: one could be called underdeveloped socialism and one comparatively developed socialism. This latter stage," he noted, "may take even longer than the first." In 1987, Deng Xiaoping stated that "Socialism itself is the first stage of communism, and here in China we are still in the primary stage of socialism—that is, the underdeveloped stage. In everything we do we must proceed from this reality, and all planning must be consistent with it." The new development stage we are in today is just one part of the primary stage of socialism, but thanks to many decades of hard work, it is a period that marks a new starting point for us.

From a historical standpoint, this new stage will see our Party lead the people in completing the historic transformation from standing up and becoming prosperous to growing strong. After its founding in 1921, the CPC united with and led the people through a bitter, 28 year-long struggle to establish the People's Republic of China and make the historic transition from new-democratic revolution to socialist revolution. After the founding of the PRC in 1949, our Party led the people in creatively carrying out a socialist transformation by establishing socialism as China's basic system and promoting socialist economic and cultural progress on a large scale. The Chinese people not only stood up, but stood firmly on their own feet and completed the historic transition from socialist revolution to socialist development. On entering a new historical period, it led the people in launching the great new revolution of reform and opening up, which sparked tremendous enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity among all of our people and opened up the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. As China made large strides in catching up with the times, it took yet another huge leap forward along the course of socialist modernization and embraced the bright prospects of national rejuvenation. Building on the development of the past, we are now writing the new chapter of building China into a modern socialist country in all respects.

In terms of the present reality, we now possess a solid material foundation for embarking on a new journey toward an even higher goal. Thanks to the tireless efforts made since the PRC's founding, and especially in the past 40-odd years since the adoption of the reform and opening up policy, China reached new levels in economic strength, scientific and technological capability, composite national strength, and living standards by the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). China is now the world's second largest economy, the largest industrial nation, the largest trader of goods, and the largest holder of foreign exchange reserves. China's GDP has exceeded RMB100 trillion yuan and stands at over $10,000 in per capita terms. Permanent urban residents account for over 60% of the population, and the middle-income group has grown to over 400 million. Particularly noteworthy are our historic achievements of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and eliminating absolute poverty—a problem which has plagued our nation for thousands of years. These are significant milestones in our process of socialist modernization, and lay a solid foundation for marching toward the Second Centenary Goal during the new stage of development.

Shortly after the founding of the PRC, our Party put forward the goal of building a modern socialist country. Over the course of 13 five-year plans, we have laid a solid foundation for achieving this goal. The next 30 years make up the development stage in which we will finally complete this great ambition. We have worked out the roadmap and timetable for our development going forward. By 2035, or within three five-year plan periods, we will basically achieve socialist modernization. Then, by the middle of this century, after completing another three five-year plans, China will become a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.

The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. Recently, the world situation could be best described by the word "chaos," and it appears that this trend will continue for quite some time. The response to the Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the leadership capacities and strengths of the social systems of all countries. The fact that time and momentum are on our side gives us self-assurance, resolve, and confidence.

That said, we must fully recognize that although China remains in an important period of strategic opportunity for development, and will remain so for some time to come, the opportunities and challenges we face are changing. Though both are unprecedented in their extent, the opportunities generally outweigh the challenges. An ancient Chinese sage once said that we should handle the easy and small things cautiously so as to avoid difficulties and disasters. All of us in the Party must remain modest, prudent, and committed to hard work; we must mobilize all positive factors, unite with all forces that can be united with, and focus on running our own affairs well, as we work unswervingly toward our objectives.

Our task is to build China into a modern socialist country in all respects. Of course, the modernization we are pursuing has distinctive Chinese features and is tailored to the realities of China. At the Fifth Plenary Session, I underscored five characteristics in particular. China's modernization must cover a massive population, lead to common prosperity, deliver both material and cultural-ethical progress, promote harmony between humanity and nature, and proceed along a path of peaceful development. This is the direction modernization in China must follow. It must be embodied in our principles, policies, strategies, measures, and work plans to enable the Party and the Chinese people to work together toward this end.

The new stage of development is an important part of socialist development in our country. In 1992, Deng Xiaoping stated that "We have been building socialism for only a few decades and are still in the primary stage. It will take a very long historical period to consolidate and develop the socialist system, and it will require persistent struggle by several generations, a dozen or even several dozens. We can never rest on our oars." In my opinion, Deng made this remark from a political point of view. He was pointing out that it would take a fairly long period of hard work to turn China into a modern country based on the weak economic foundation of the time. But he was also stressing that we must persist with China's socialist system from one generation to the next, even after modernization is achieved. We must work continuously to find ways to consolidate and develop socialism, for no solution can last forever once developed. Mao Zedong once said that "All things have their boundaries. The way things develop is that one stage leads to another, advancing without interruption. But each and every stage has a 'boundary.' To deny the 'boundary' is to deny qualitative changes or partial qualitative changes." The primary stage of socialism is not a static, cast-iron, or stagnant period, nor is it a spontaneous and passive stage that can easily and naturally be passed through. Rather, it is a stage of dynamism, action, and promise, one that should always brim with vitality. It develops gradually but ceaselessly, moving from quantitative increases to qualitative leaps. Fully building a modern socialist China and basically realizing socialist modernization are essential for China's development in the primary stage of socialism, and essential for China to advance from the primary stage to a higher stage of socialism.

Second, we need to fully apply the new development philosophy.

For our Party, one very important part of leading the people in governing the country is answering the major questions of what kind of development China should pursue and how it should pursue it. On October 29, 2015, at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, I stated, "Principles are precursors to actions. All actions in development are guided by principles of development, and it is these principles that ultimately determine the effectiveness of development and its success or failure. Experience tells us that development is a process of constant change, and that the environments and conditions in which development takes place are both subject to change. Therefore, it is only natural that principles of development should also be subject to change."

President Xi toured Guizhou province, Feb 3-5, 2021, where he visited with officials and members of the public and conveyed his Spring Festival greetings to all people across the nation. He visited a grocery store in Guanshanhu district, Guiyang, taking a look at how supplies, sales, and prices were fairing, afternoon of February 4 before the Chinese New Year. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER XIE HUANCHI

Since the 18th National Congress in 2012, our Party has, based on the careful assessment of the economic situation, made timely adjustments to our development principles and approach, which have given rise to historic achievements and shifts in the economic development of our country. Here, I would like to mention the most significant of these developments.

First, we have committed to a people-centered philosophy of development. In my address to the domestic and foreign press during the debut of the Standing Committee of 18th Central Committee Political Bureau on November 15, 2012, I stressed that "The people yearn for a better life, our goal is to help them achieve it, and we must unswervingly follow the path of common prosperity." At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee on October 29, 2015, I put forward the vision of people-centered development. At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee on October 29, 2020, I further underscored the need to strive for substantive progress in promoting common prosperity for all our people.

Second, we have changed the thinking that the GDP growth rate is the sole barometer of success. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 15, 2012, I stressed that we cannot blindly pursue rapid growth without regard for objective laws and conditions. At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee Political Bureau on April 25, 2013, I stressed that local governments should not take national regulatory targets as the baseline for local economic development, nor should they compete with each other to have higher growth rates. I said that we needed to shift the focus to improving the quality and returns of economic growth, to promoting sustained and healthy economic development, and to pursuing genuine rather than inflated GDP growth and achieving high-quality, efficient, and sustainable development.

On Feb 22, 2021, Party and state leaders including Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng met with research and operations personnel who took part in the Chang'e 5 lunar exploration mission at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Xi Jinping and others are pictured here viewing a display showing samples brought back from the moon and explaining the results of the mission. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER LI XUEREN

Third, China's economy entered a period defined by three overlapping phases. At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee Political Bureau on July 25, 2013, I noted that our economy was now in a slowing growth phase, a painful structural adjustment phase, and a phase of absorbing the adverse effects of previous stimulus policies. I emphasized that, at the same time, the world economy was also in a period of profound adjustment, which made for an extremely complex economic development environment. This required us to gain a proper understanding of the characteristics of the current stage of Chinese economic development and to undertake practical reforms and adjustments.

Fourth, China's economic development entered a new normal. I put forward this proposition at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 10, 2013. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 9 of the following year, I analyzed new development trends in nine respects to explain why economic development had entered a new normal. I emphasized that understanding the new normal, adapting to it, and guiding its development constituted the major theme of China's economic development both at present and in the period ahead.

Fifth, we have enabled the market to play the decisive role in resource allocation and given better play to the role of the government. I stated at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in November 2013 that the market is the most efficient means of allocating resources. A general law of market economies is that the market should determine the allocation of resources. I thus highlighted the need to let the market play the decisive role in resource allocation, thereby redefining the role of the market.

Sixth, we have committed to the idea that lucid waters and lush mountains are as precious as mountains of silver and gold. I put forward this concept during a speech at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan on September 7, 2013. I emphasized that developing an ecological civilization and building a beautiful China constitute a strategic task, because we need to make sure we leave behind a beautiful homeland with blue skies, green fields, and clean waters for our future generations. I reiterated this point during a talk with the Guizhou delegation at the Second Session of the 12th National People's Congress on March 7, 2014.

Seventh, we have introduced the new development philosophy. I proposed the idea of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in October 2015. I noted that innovative development was focused on addressing the issue of growth drivers, coordinated development on redressing imbalances, green development on creating harmony between humanity and nature, open development on coordinating internal and external development, and shared development on ensuring social equity and justice. I stated that the introduction of the new development philosophy marked a fundamental change for the entire development context of our country.

Eighth, we have initiated supply-side structural reform. At the meeting of the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs on November 10, 2015, I said that we should make great efforts to promote supply-side structural reform. I stated at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 18, 2015 that the five priorities in promoting supply-side structural reform were cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, reducing costs, and strengthening areas of weakness. At the Central Economic Work Conference on December 19, 2018, I put forward the policy of consolidating the gains in the five priority tasks, strengthening the dynamism of micro entities, upgrading industrial chains, and ensuring unimpeded flows in the economy. I pointed out that this policy constituted a general requirement for furthering supply-side structural reform and spurring high-quality economic development both at present and in the period ahead.

Ninth, we must deal with unbalanced and inadequate development. At the 19th CPC National Congress held in October 2017, I concluded that the principal challenge facing Chinese society had evolved into one between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's growing needs for a better life. I emphasized that this represented a historic shift that affected the whole landscape.

Tenth, we must deliver high-quality development. At the same congress, I pointed out that China's economy was transitioning from a phase of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development. We arrived at this conclusion based on the change in the principal challenge facing Chinese society. In this stage, we need to follow the new development philosophy.

Eleventh, we must modernize our economic system. As I said in the same speech, this is both an urgent requirement for getting us smoothly through this critical transition and a strategic goal for China's development.

Twelfth, we have moved to create a new development dynamic that focuses on domestic economic flow and features positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement. I put forward this concept at a meeting of the Central Commission for Financial and Economic Affairs on April 10, 2020.

Thirteenth, we have adopted a coordinated approach to development and security. I stressed at a group study session of the Central Committee Political Bureau on May 29, 2015 that we must firmly keep in mind the concept of ensuring security in development. On January 18, 2016, I analyzed the risks and challenges in four fields we faced on the path of open development at a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials. On January 5, 2018, in a speech at a seminar for new members and alternative members of the CPC Central Committee and principal provincial and ministerial level leaders, I listed 16 risks in 8 areas that required our full attention. On January 21, 2019, we held a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials on remaining mindful of worst-case scenarios and guarding against and defusing major risks. At the opening session of that seminar, I pointed out that we should guard against and defuse major risks in the political, ideological, economic, scientific and technological, and social domains and in China-US trade frictions, in foreign affairs, and within our Party. I also set forward clear requirements for these tasks, and emphasized the need to always maintain a high level of vigilance, remaining alert to "black swan" events and "grey rhino" risks.

In reviewing this course of events, I wish to underscore the theories and concepts on economic and social development that we have put forward since our Party's 18th National Congress in 2012. Of these theories and concepts, the new development philosophy is the most important. As a theoretical system, it addresses a series of theoretical and practical issues regarding our development goals, drivers, methods, and approaches, and delineates the major political issues with regard to our political stance, values, and model and path of development. The whole Party must fully and faithfully implement the new development philosophy on all fronts. In doing so, we should focus on the following points.

1. We must understand the fundamental aim of the new development philosophy.

As an old saying goes, "As vast as heaven and earth may be, the people must always come first." The people represent the deepest foundation and the greatest source of confidence for our Party in governing the country. Working for the wellbeing of the people and the rejuvenation of the nation is the immutable aim of our Party in leading the modernization drive, and the root and essence of the new development philosophy. We will only have the right view of development and modernization if we follow a people-centered approach, insisting that development is for the people, reliant on the people, and that its fruits should be shared by the people. The Soviet Union was the world's first socialist country and once enjoyed spectacular success. Ultimately however, it collapsed, mainly because the Communist Party of the Soviet Union became detached from the people and turned into a group of privileged bureaucrats concerned only with protecting their own interests. Even in a modernized country, if a governing party turns its back on the people, it will imperil the fruits of modernization.

President Xi toured Fujian province, March 22-25, 2021. He is seen in this photo inspecting the spring tea crop and learning about the development of the local tea industry at an eco-friendly tea farm in Nanping, afternoon of March 22. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER JU PENG

Realizing common prosperity is more than an economic goal. It is a major political issue that bears on our Party's governance foundation. We cannot allow the gap between the rich and the poor to continue growing—for the poor to keep getting poorer while the rich continue growing richer. We cannot permit the wealth gap to become an unbridgeable gulf. Of course, common prosperity should be realized in a gradual way that gives full consideration to what is necessary and what is possible and adheres to the laws governing social and economic development. At the same time, however, we cannot afford to just sit around and wait. We must be proactive about narrowing the gaps between regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor people. We should promote all-around social progress and well-rounded personal development, and advocate social fairness and justice, so that our people enjoy the fruits of development in a fairer way. We should see that people have a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness, and security and make them feel that common prosperity is not an empty slogan but a concrete fact that they can see and feel for themselves.

President Xi chats with teachers and students at the Imaging and Intelligence Technology Laboratory at Tsinghua University, April 19, 2021, shortly before the school marked its 110th anniversary. PHOTO BY XINHUA REPORTER HUANG JINGWEN

2. We need to stay problem-oriented.

The China of today stands at a new historical starting point in development. In light of development requirements in the new stage, we need to stick to a problem-oriented approach so that we can implement the new development philosophy with even greater precision. We need to effectively address the issues relating to unbalanced and insufficient development in order to make our development high-quality. For example, greater self-reliance in science and technology, which is essential for us to sustain and develop ourselves, has been hampered by many bottlenecks. The development gap between urban and rural areas and between regions is still too large, and the question of how exactly we should solve this problem involves extensive research into many new issues. In particular, we need to present clear approaches in response to regional divergence and reorganization, accelerated population migration across regions, and the decreasing willingness among rural residents to settle in cities. There is broad consensus about promoting a green transformation in every aspect of economic and social development. But our energy system is still heavily reliant on fossil fuels such as coal, which puts a great strain on the efforts to realize a green and low-carbon transformation in our production modes and ways of life. The targets of reaching peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality before 2060 are extremely formidable. Given the backlash against economic globalization and the complex and changeable external environment, we need to strike a good balance between greater self-reliance and openness and cooperation, between participation in the international division of labor and the safeguarding of national security, and between utilized foreign investment and security reviews, so that China can open wider to the outside world while guaranteeing its national security. In short, as we enter a new stage of development, we need to deepen our understanding of the new development philosophy, so that we can take more targeted and more concrete measures that will truly deliver high-quality development.

3. We must be mindful of the difficulties ahead.

Good planning and preparation are the keys to avoiding difficulties and hardships. As the principal contradiction in Chinese society has changed and the global balance of power is steadily shifting, China will have to contend with more internal and external risks in development than before. We must be more aware of potential dangers, keep in mind worst-case scenarios, and be prepared for more complex and graver situations. The Central Committee prioritized issues of security in its Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035. It emphasized that we should ensure security in all areas and throughout the entire process of China's development. If our underlying security foundations are not solid, the entire edifice of our development will come under threat. We must uphold the unity between political security, the safety of the people, and the interests of the nation, be ready to stand up for ourselves and be adept at doing so, and work to increase our overall strengths, especially the strength of our deterrence.

We should prevent major fluctuations in the macro economy and avoid large inflows and withdrawals of foreign investment in the capital market. We must ensure the security of food, energy, and major resource supplies, as well as the stability and security of industrial and supply chains. We need to prevent the disorderly expansion and unchecked growth of capital, and ensure environmental and workplace safety. We should guard against the risk of large-scale job losses, strengthen public health security, and effectively prevent and handle public disturbances. In strengthening the systems for safeguarding national security, we should draw on experiences from other countries, work out how to set necessary security barriers and locks at different stages, and identify effective solutions for various national security issues.

Third, we need to accelerate the creation of a new development dynamic.

The Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 defined the creation of a new development dynamic that focuses on domestic flow and features positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement as a major strategic task that concerned China's overall development interests. This task must be correctly understood and actively promoted according to the overall situation.

In recent years, we have witnessed a backlash against economic globalization and profound adjustments to the circulation patterns in the international economy. The Covid-19 pandemic exacerbated the trend of deglobalization, and many countries have now become more inward-looking. When the epidemic was prevalent, I visited several provinces around the country to gain an in-depth understanding of the situation on epidemic containment and investigate the problems that had emerged in reopening the economy. During my visit to Zhejiang Province, I found that global industrial and supply chains had been partially disrupted due to the pandemic. This had directly impacted flows in the domestic economy. Many companies were forced to suspend operations because they could not bring in the raw materials and personnel they needed or send their goods overseas. I realized just how much things had changed; the environments and conditions that had facilitated largescale imports and exports were no longer in place. Given these new circumstances, we needed to come up with new thinking to steer development. Accordingly, in April last year I proposed that we create a new development dynamic that focused on domestic flow and featured positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement. At the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee in October 2020, we made comprehensive arrangements for this task. The establishment of the new development dynamic is a strategic and proactive step for taking the initiative in development, a major historic mission that must be fulfilled in the new development stage, and an important measure for applying the new development philosophy.

As a socialist country with a large population and a vast market, China is certain to encounter various pressures and stern challenges in the process of modernization, the likes of which no other country will have ever experienced. In 1936, Mao Zedong made a remark that still holds true for us even today. He said, "No matter how complicated, grave, and harsh the circumstances, what a military leader needs most of all is the ability to function independently in organizing and employing the forces under his command. He may often be forced into a passive position by the enemy, but the important thing is to regain the initiative quickly. Failure to do so spells defeat. The initiative is not something imaginary but is concrete and material." If we can, by dint of our own efforts, ensure unimpeded domestic flow to effectively shield ourselves from harm, we will have the vigor and vitality to not only survive but thrive amid volatile international situations, making it impossible for anyone to keep us down or to back us into a corner. We must speed up our efforts to create a new development dynamic, so that no matter the challenges or difficulties we encounter, whether anticipated or not, we will be better able to survive, compete, and maintain sustainable development. This way, we can ensure the course of national rejuvenation is never delayed or interrupted.

In practice, there are some misunderstandings that we need to guard against. First, some people tend to only speak about the first half, or the domestic flow element as the main factor, of the new development dynamic, and call for China to sharply reverse its opening to the outside world. Second, some others speak only of the latter half, or the positive interplay between domestic flow and international engagement, and still subscribe to the old development dynamic of large-scale imports and exports with two ends of the economic process—markets and resources—being located abroad, despite the changes to the international landscape. Third, acting in one's own way and only focusing on one's own sphere of interest is also a mistake. Some are neglecting the task of building a unified national market and promoting overall domestic flow, preferring instead to focus on their own local or regional market. Fourth, some have equated unimpeded economic flow with smooth logistics and are focused only on this basic level of circulation. Fifth, in resolving technological bottlenecks, some people want to do everything themselves, which result in needless replication, or they carry out extravagant projects that ultimately fail because they don't take account of reality and the industrial base. Sixth, in working to expand domestic demand and boost the domestic market, some people have begun blindly handing out loans for investment and over-stimulating consumption, or even reverting back to energy-intensive, high-emissions projects. Seventh, some are concentrating on demand-side management at the expense of supply-side structural reform, making it impossible to achieve a higher-level, dynamic equilibrium at which supply boosts demand. Eighth, some think that the new development dynamic is a matter for the economic and technology departments and has little to do with themselves. All of these understandings are incomplete or even erroneous; we must guard against them and rectify them should they arise.

The key to building a new development dynamic is to ensure unimpeded economic flow, just the same as a healthy person needs to keep the blood vessels circulating freely to maintain a good balance of vital energy and blood. Economic activity requires the integration of various production factors at the stages of production, allocation, distribution, and consumption in order to realize a circular flow. Under normal circumstances, smooth economic flow will lead to increased material products, greater social wealth, improved wellbeing among the people, and enhanced national strength, giving rise to an upward spiral of development. When obstructions and breakages emerge, economic flow is disrupted. From a macroeconomic perspective, the economic growth rate drops, unemployment rises, risks build up, and the balance of payments falls into disequilibrium. At the microeconomic level, problems such as overcapacity, declining enterprise returns, and falling personal incomes arise.

In the present stage of China's development, the most important task in promoting smooth economic flow is maintaining effective and smooth operations on the supply side. If we have a strong capacity to provide effective supply, we can clear obstructions and bottlenecks in economic flow, enabling us to create jobs and provide income, which will further boost our country's capacity to create demand. As such, we must take furthering supply-side structural reform as our main task, and continue to carry out the priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening areas of weakness. We need to comprehensively improve and upgrade the industrial structure, enhance our innovation capacity, competitiveness, and overall strength, increase the resilience of the supply system, and ensure inputs produce higher-quality outputs with greater efficiency, so as to achieve a dynamic economic equilibrium at a high level.

I have previously mentioned that the essence of the new development dynamic is realizing a high level of self-reliance. Currently, the environment for our economic development is changing, particularly with respect to our comparative advantages in production factors. Because labor costs are rising and the carrying capacities of our resources and environment have reached a limit, the production function formula of the past is no longer sustainable, and science and technology are becoming more and more important on all fronts. Under such circumstances, it is important to put more emphasis on independent innovation. As a result, the Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 put forward two major measures of promoting scientific and technological innovation and removing bottlenecks in industry. We must understand these issues as being vital to the survival and development of our nation. We should comprehensively strengthen planning for scientific and technological innovation to bring together superior resources, and implement the mechanism to competitively award research projects in order to promote strong and steady progress in innovation. We must better align the chains of innovation and industry, and draw up roadmaps, timetables, and systems of responsibility. Where appropriate, relevant departments and local governments should play the leading role in this regard. Where it is appropriate for enterprises to take the lead, governments should give them their full support. Central government enterprises and other state-owned enterprises must have the courage to shoulder the responsibility and take the lead in turning themselves into the source of original technologies and the head of the modern industrial chain.

In today's world, markets are the scarcest resource. China's market is thus a huge advantage of our country. We must make full use of this factor and continuously consolidate it to make it a strong pillar for creating a new development dynamic. Expanding domestic demand is not a temporary policy to cope with financial risks and external shocks, nor is it about unleashing a deluge of strong stimulus policies or increasing government investment. Rather, it is about establishing an effective system to boost domestic demand based on China's actual economic development, moving to tap the potential of demand, working faster to build a complete demand system, strengthening demand-side management, and expanding consumer spending while also upgrading the level of consumption, so that the development of our vast domestic market becomes a sustainable historical process.

To create a new development dynamic and pursue high-standard opening up, we require robust domestic flow and stable economic fundamentals. On this basis, we can create a strong gravitational pull for global production factors and resources, a strong ability to hold our own amid intense international competition, and powerful momentum for the allocation of global resources. We should continue to deepen opening up based on the flow of production factors such as goods, services, capital, and personnel, and steadily expand institution-based opening up with regard to rules, regulations, management, and standards. We should see that China's domestic circulation plays a stronger guiding role in dual-flow dynamics and foster new advantages for China's participation in international economic cooperation and competition. We should work to harness international flow as a means for improving the efficiency and level of domestic flow and the quality and allocation of our production factors. Through competition in the international market, we should boost the competitiveness of our export products and services, and promote industrial transformation and upgrading to increase China's influence in global industry chains, supply chains, and innovation chains. Chinese enterprises now have interests that extend to many countries around the world. This requires that we pay more attention to understanding international affairs and carrying out thorough studies on stakeholders, trading partners, and investment destinations, in order to establish a clear picture of potential benefits and risks.

To sum up, entering a new stage of development, applying a new development philosophy, and building a new development dynamic are determined by the logic of China's economic and social development theory, history, and practices. These three elements are closely interrelated. Our entry into the new development stage clarifies the historic juncture that national development has reached, the new development philosophy makes clear the guiding principles behind our modernization drive, and the new development dynamic elucidates the path that will take us to economic modernization. An understanding of the new development stage will provide us with the practical basis for applying the new development philosophy and creating a new development dynamic. The new development philosophy will provide us with a guide for understanding the new development stage and creating a new development dynamic. Creating a new development dynamic, on the other hand, is a strategic choice regarding our response to the opportunities and challenges in the new development stage and the implementation of the new development philosophy.

Fourth, we need to strengthen the Party's overall leadership over China's modernization drive.

The defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and its most prominent trait is its integration of theoretical and practical innovation and institutional and cultural confidence, all of which imbue socialism with Chinese characteristics with great political, theoretical, institutional, and cultural strengths for promoting development. We should implement the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee in tandem with those of its Fourth Plenary Session to continue modernizing China's system and capacity for governance, and combining the strengths of overall Party leadership and Chinese socialism with those of the new development philosophy in order to realize Party leadership over socialist modernization through better defined functions, more sophisticated systems, and more efficient management.

How well we implement the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session will have a bearing on the overall development of our Party and country for the next five years, fifteen years, and beyond. The Recommendations for Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035, which were adopted at the Fifth Plenary Session, are rich in content. They incorporate overarching approaches, principles, and strategies as well as detailed requirements, and include strategic decisions that we have been implementing since the CPC's 18th National Congress as well as new major judgments and strategic moves. It is going to require a considerable effort to master this material. If we don't have a thorough understanding of it, we will overlook the essential points and fail to achieve anything of practical value during implementation. Officials at all levels, particularly those in high-ranking positions, need to go through the Recommendations line by line. After acquiring a general understanding, they should delve into the key points and new ideas, and following our fine tradition of linking theory with practice, apply these to the present reality and the long-term horizon to give full play to their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity.

I have mentioned on many occasions that officials in high-ranking positions should be Marxist statesmen and that officials at every level must be politically discerning. Not long ago, I reiterated this point at a meeting of Party members in leadership positions held by the CPC Central Committee Political Bureau. Economic work is not abstract or isolated, but concrete and connected to the whole. Officials at all levels, particularly high-ranking ones, must act in accordance with the overarching strategy of national rejuvenation and the overall context of once-in-a-century world change, continue to enhance their capacity for political judgment, thinking, and implementation, and bear in mind the fundamental interests of our country. They should consistently strengthen their political ability, strategic foresight, and professional competence with regard to understanding the new development stage, applying the new development philosophy, and creating a new development dynamic. They must willingly shoulder their responsibilities and take effective action to implement the Central Committee's decisions and plans.

To lead China, a major country in the East with over one billion people, in achieving modernization, our Party must adhere to the principles of seeking truth from facts, pursuing progress while ensuring stability, and promoting coordinated development. We must plan in a more farsighted, comprehensive, and strategic fashion so that advances are made on all fronts and a balance is ensured between the quality, structure, scale, speed, performance, and security of development. In building a modern socialist country in all respects, we will leave no region or ethnic group behind; at the same time, due to significant regional disparities and the unbalanced nature of development, it is not possible to synchronize the modernization processes of all regions, and we should encourage and support regions with the right conditions to take the lead in modernization so as to pave the way for others.

With the Chinese New Year just around the corner, local Party and government officials should go the extra mile in epidemic prevention and control and in ensuring ample supplies, people's basic needs, and security and stability. We should take timely, specific, and practical measures to defuse risks in order to ensure a peaceful and joyous social atmosphere. We must firmly persist with routine epidemic control, thoroughly implement all prevention and control measures, and act swiftly to effectively deal with any sporadic cases. We should conduct a full investigation of social problems, strengthen analysis and assessment to attain a proper understanding of all potential risks, and take action to guard against and defuse these risks. We need to ensure energy and material supplies and transportation safety during the Spring Festival. We should enhance the crime prevention and control systems and crack down on illegal and criminal activities that affect the lives and property of our people to ensure social stability. We must act as soon as possible to resolve problems that could lead to public disturbances such as overdue payments for construction projects and wage arrears owed to rural migrant workers.

Comrades, I often recall a remark that Deng Xiaoping made in 1992. He said, "If we can make China a moderately developed country within a hundred years from the founding of the People's Republic, that will be an extraordinary achievement. The period from now to the middle of the next century will be crucial. We must immerse ourselves in hard work: we have difficult tasks to accomplish and bear a heavy responsibility." Now that heavy responsibility has fallen to us, and we must shoulder it with courage and determination. We must unite our people and lead them in working hard in a down-to-earth way to make achievements that are worthy of the Party, the people, and history.

This was a speech made by General Secretary Xi Jinping at a seminar for provincial and ministerial level officials on studying and implementing the guiding principles of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, January 11, 2021.

(Originally appeared in Qiushi Journal, Chinese edition, No 9, 2021)

Full Text: Keynote address by Xi Jinping at CPC and World Political Parties Summit

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Chinese president, attends the CPC and World Political Parties Summit and delivers a keynote speech in Beijing, capital of China, July 6, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

BEIJING - Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and Chinese president, on Tuesday delivered a keynote address at the CPC and World Political Parties Summit via video link in Beijing.

Please see the attachment for the full text of the English translation of the address.

Full Text: Keynote address by Xi Jinping at CPC and World Political Parties Summit

Full Text: Speech by Xi Jinping at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, delivers an important speech at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC in Beijing on Thursday. JU PENG/XINHUA

BEIJING -- Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, on Thursday addressed a ceremony celebrating the CPC centenary at Tian'anmen Square in Beijing.

Please see the attachment for the full text of the speech. 

Full Text: Speech by Xi Jinping at a ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC

Xi and other former and current Party and State leaders attend the ceremony. YIN BOGU/XINHUA

 

Full Text: Remarks by President Xi at Global Health Summit

President Xi Jinping attends the Global Health Summit and delivers a speech via video in Beijing, May 21, 2021. [Photo/Xinhua]

Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping

President of the People's Republic of China

At the Global Health Summit

21 May 2021

Your Excellency Prime Minister Mario Draghi,

Your Excellency President Ursula von der Leyen,

Dear Colleagues,

It gives me great pleasure to attend the Global Health Summit. Last year, the G20 successfully held an Extraordinary Leaders' Summit on COVID-19 and the Riyadh Summit. Many important common understandings were reached on promoting global solidarity against the virus and boosting world economic recovery.

The past year and more have seen repeated resurgence and frequent mutations of the coronavirus. The most serious pandemic in a century is still wreaking havoc. To clinch an early victory against COVID-19 and restore economic growth remains the top priority for the international community. G20 members need to shoulder responsibilities in global cooperation against the virus. In the meantime, we need to draw on experience both positive and otherwise, and lose no time in remedying deficiencies, closing loopholes and strengthening weak links in a bid to enhance preparedness and capacity for coping with major public health emergencies. Here, I want to make five points on what we need to do.

First, we must put people and their lives first. The battle with COVID-19 is one for the people and by the people. What has happened proves that to completely defeat the virus, we must put people's lives and health front and center, demonstrate a great sense of political responsibility and courage, and make extraordinary responses to an extraordinary challenge. No effort must be spared to attend every case, save every patient, and truly respect the value and dignity of every human life. Meanwhile, it is also important to minimize the potential impact on people's life and maintain general order in our society.

Second, we must follow science-based policies and ensure a coordinated and systemic response. Faced with this new infectious disease, we should advocate the spirit of science, adopt a science-based approach, and follow the law of science. The fight against COVID-19 is an all-out war that calls for a systemic response to coordinate pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, balance targeted routine COVID-19 protocols and emergency measures, and ensure both epidemic control and socio-economic development. G20 members need to adopt responsible macro-economic policies and step up coordination to keep the global industrial and supply chains safe and smooth. It is essential to give continued support by such means as debt suspension and development aid to developing countries, especially vulnerable countries facing exceptional difficulties.

Third, we must stick together and promote solidarity and cooperation. The pandemic is yet another reminder that we humanity rise and fall together with a shared future. Confronted by a pandemic like COVID-19, we must champion the vision of building a global community of health for all, tide over this trying time through solidarity and cooperation, and firmly reject any attempt to politicize, label or stigmatize the virus. Political manipulation would not serve COVID-19 response on the domestic front. It would only disrupt international cooperation against the virus and bring greater harm to people around the world.

Fourth, we must uphold fairness and equity as we strive to close the immunization gap. A year ago, I proposed that vaccines should be made a global public good. Today, the problem of uneven vaccination has become more acute. It is imperative for us to reject vaccine nationalism and find solutions to issues concerning the production capacity and distribution of vaccines, in order to make vaccines more accessible and affordable in developing countries. Major vaccine-developing and producing countries need to take up their responsibility to provide more vaccines to developing countries in urgent need, and they also need to support their businesses in joint research and authorized production with other countries having the relevant capacity. Multilateral financial institutions should provide inclusive financing support for vaccine procurement of developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) should speed up efforts under the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access (COVAX) facility.

Fifth, we must address both the symptoms and root causes as we improve the governance system. The pandemic is an extensive test of the global health governance system. It is important that we strengthen and leverage the role of the UN and the WHO and improve the global disease prevention and control system to better prevent and respond to future pandemics. It is important that we uphold the spirit of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, fully heed the views of developing countries, and better reflect their legitimate concerns. It is also important that we enhance our capacity of monitoring, early-warning and emergency response, our capacity of treatment of major pandemics, of contingency reserve and logistics, of fighting disinformation, and of providing support to developing countries.

Colleagues,

In this unprecedented battle against the pandemic, China has, while receiving support and help from many countries, mounted a massive global humanitarian operation. At the 73rd World Health Assembly held in May last year, I announced five measures that China would take to support global anti-pandemic cooperation. Implementation of those measures is well underway. Notwithstanding the limited production capacity and enormous demand at home, China has honored its commitment by providing free vaccines to more than 80 developing countries in urgent need and exporting vaccines to 43 countries. We have provided 2 billion US dollars in assistance for the COVID-19 response and economic and social recovery in developing countries hit by the pandemic. We have sent medical supplies to more than 150 countries and 13 international organizations, providing more than 280 billion masks, 3.4 billion protective suits and 4 billion testing kits to the world. A cooperation mechanism has been established for Chinese hospitals to pair up with 41 African hospitals, and construction for the China-assisted project of the Africa CDC headquarters officially started at the end of last year. Important progress has also been made in the China-UN joint project to set up in China a global humanitarian response depot and hub. China is fully implementing the G20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative for Poorest Countries and has so far put off debt repayment exceeding 1.3 billion US dollars, the highest deferral amount among G20 members.

In continued support for global solidarity against COVID-19, I wish to announce the following:

— China will provide an additional 3 billion US dollars in international aid over the next three years to support COVID-19 response and economic and social recovery in other developing countries.

— Having already supplied 300 million doses of vaccines to the world, China will provide still more vaccines to the best of its ability.

— China supports its vaccine companies in transferring technologies to other developing countries and carrying out joint production with them.

— Having announced support for waiving intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines, China also supports the World Trade Organization and other international institutions in making an early decision on this matter.

— China proposes setting up an international forum on vaccine cooperation for vaccine-developing and producing countries, companies and other stakeholders to explore ways of promoting fair and equitable distribution of vaccines around the world.

Colleagues,

The ancient Roman philosopher Seneca said, "We are all waves of the same sea." Let us join hands and stand shoulder to shoulder with each other to firmly advance international cooperation against COVID-19, build a global community of health for all, and work for a healthier and brighter future for humanity.

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